Sailing over the North Pole?

santaFire dancer Afi has more reason for concern about global warming than most in the novel y1.  His home nation of Kiribati is composed of a series of atolls that rise only a few meters above sea level in the very middle of the vast Pacific Ocean. Sea level rise that is too rapid to allow coral to respond naturally means that Kiribati, Tuvalu and several other countries face becoming totally submerged over the next several dozen years. This is in real life, you understand, not fiction from the book

However, word today is that there will be new places to sail.  According to a study conducted at UCLA, by 2050 the Arctic ice sheet will be thin enough for icebreakers to carve a path between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and to possibly allow commercial craft to travel right over the north pole.

According to the USA Today the new research is being published online in the journal of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The earliest that sea routes would go directly over the North Pole would be in the 2040s, according to Laurence  Smith, a geography professor at UCLA who headed the study, and who notes that this scenario is likely to occur at this point whether global warming is curbed soon or allowed to continue to increase.

PangeaOf course, the earth has and will continue to undergo radical changes in the shape of its continents and oceans. About 200 million years ago all the continents got together for awhile and had a party that we refer to as Pangaea.  However, the earth does have its own pace. It took tens of millions of years for that that party to end.

The UCLA study notes that this unexpected effect of global warming would make for significantly shorter shipping routes but would also obviously raise a host of political and ecological issues.  Not to mention the fact that we will need to find a new remote location for Santa Claus.

How happy is your brain?

From Crystalinks.com

From Crystalinks.com

My other blog includes occasional posts about telepathy because the hero of my other novel, x0,  is a budding telepath.  Last night I made an attempt to understand how telepathy might be possible without requiring magic that defies the laws of the known universe. (Please understand that I have no objection to law-defying magic.) I realized that much of my arguement came from my research for y1 into the workings of the human brain. Zane, the hero of y1, is a student of neuroscience because he desperately wants to understand how he can alter his appearance. Once he begins working for a pharmaceutical company dedicated to mental health issues, however, other aspects of the brain begin to intrigue him.  Like, what happens in your brain when you are happy?

A brain works by chemistry and by electrical impulse, and it directs hundreds of chemical substances called neurotransmitters that travel in-between the brain’s cells, delivering messages about thoughts and feelings. I share Zane’s amazement that such a system even works, much less with the precision that it does.

We do know that different substances deliver certain kinds of messages, like a FedEx that only does books or a UPS that exclusively delivers clothing. One of these messengers, serotonin, generally likes to blab to the nearest neuron about anxiety, mood, sexuality, and appetite. Another, norepinephrine, appears to focus on delivering messages about fatigue, alertness, and stress. Dopamine likes to communicate about motivation and reward. The theory behind antidepressants is that the neurotransmitters that like to communicate about feelings should be linked to a person’s happiness. So when people are depressed perhaps it is because they do not have enough of these particular messengers running around to spread the joy.

medicineThe very first antidepressants created in the ‘50s tried to raise the brain’s levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, to play with this mental message system. A second class of anti-depressants was based on inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down these guys in order to leave more of the good stuff in the brain. Basically the same idea. Next came the less side-effect-plagued successor, known as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI), the most frequently prescribed antidepressants today. First developed in the ‘70s, and continuously improved upon by different pharmaceutical companies, SSRI’s work by stopping the process of reuptake, a fancy name for when a responsible neuron absorbs the neurotransmitter it has sent out, to take the messenger back off the streets once the message has been sent. The theory here is that by keeping the sending neuron from doing its re-absorbing, more of this “happy” chemical stays running around the brain. Again, the same idea.

From Wired.com

From Wired.com

While it sounds great to say that taking this medication is “fixing chemical imbalances in the brain,” the problem is that no one gets to do experiments on a live human brain. Thankfully. And dead human brains don’t send chemical messages and can’t be depressed. Neither really can animals, at least those generally accepted for grisly lab experiments. So no one actually knows whether depressed people have less serotonin in their brains. Or whether they reabsorb it too fast without medication. In fact, no one knows how much serotonin a generally joyful person has. Can one really have too little? Or too much? Because a few antidepressants lower serotonin levels, and they appear to work too.

Trying to figure out what makes for a happy brain is complicated even more because there is no way to tell how much these medications change a person’s serotonin levels, because there is no way to measure those levels in a live human. Which means that, in the end, the only evidence we have that serotonin levels might be related to human depression at all is that in more cases than not, the medication works.

Is it working because it is based on an accurate analysis of how chemicasl in our brains keep us happy? Or not?  That will be subject of another post.